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Q49. - (Topic 2)
A router receives information about network 192.168.10.0/24 from multiple sources. What will the router consider the most reliable information about the path to that network?
A. an OSPF update for network 192.168.0.0/16
B. a static route to network 192.168.10.0/24
C. a static route to network 192.168.10.0/24 with a local serial interface configured as the next hop
D. a RIP update for network 192.168.10.0/24
E. a directly connected interface with an address of 192.168.10.254/24
F. a default route with a next hop address of 192.168.10.1
What Is Administrative Distance? http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094195.shtml
Select the Best Path Administrative distance is the first criterion that a router uses to determine which routing protocol to use if two protocols provide route information for the same destination. Administrative distance is a measure of the trustworthiness of the source of the routing information. Administrative distance has only local significance, and is not advertised in routing updates. Note: The smaller the administrative distance value, the more reliable the protocol. For example, if a router receives a route to a certain network from both Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) (default administrative distance - 110) and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) (default administrative distance - 100), the router chooses IGRP because IGRP is more reliable. This means the router adds the IGRP version of the route to the routing table.
Q50. - (Topic 1)
What are two characteristics of a switch that is configured as a VTP client? (Choose two.)
A. If a switch that is configured to operate in client mode cannot access a VTP server, then the switch reverts to transparent mode.
B. On switches that are configured to operate in client mode, VLANs can be created, deleted, or renamed locally.
C. The local VLAN configuration is updated only when an update that has a higher configuration revision number is received.
D. VTP advertisements are not forwarded to neighboring switches that are configured in VTP transparent mode.
E. VTP client is the default VTP mode.
F. When switches in VTP client mode are rebooted, they send a VTP advertisement request to the VTP servers.
VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) http://archive.networknewz.com/2004/0317.html
VTP Modes Server Mode Once VTP is configured on a Cisco switch, the default mode used is Server Mode. In any given VTP management domain, at least one switch must be in Server Mode. When in Server Mode, a switch can be used to add, delete, and modify VLANs, and this information will be passed to all other switches in the VTP management domain. Client Mode When a switch is configured to use VTP Client Mode, it is simply the recipient of any VLANs added, deleted, or modified by a switch in Server Mode within the same management domain. A switch in VTP client mode cannot make any changes to VLAN information. Transparent Mode A switch in VTP Transparent Mode will pass VTP updates received by switches in Server Mode to other switches in the VTP management domain, but will not actually process the contents of these messages. When individual VLANs are added, deleted, or modified on a switch running in transparent mode, the changes are local to that particular switch only, and are not passed to other switches in the VTP management domain.
Q51. - (Topic 2)
Refer to the exhibit.
Which two statements are true about the loopback address that is configured on RouterB? (Choose two.)
A. It ensures that data will be forwarded by RouterB.
B. It provides stability for the OSPF process on RouterB.
C. It specifies that the router ID for RouterB should be 10.0.0.1.
D. It decreases the metric for routes that are advertised from RouterB.
E. It indicates that RouterB should be elected the DR for the LAN.
Explanation: A loopback interface never comes down even if the link is broken so it provides stability for the OSPF process (for example we use that loopback interface as the router-id) - B is correct.
The router-ID is chosen in the order below:
The highest IP address assigned to a loopback (logical) interface. If a loopback interface is not defined, the highest IP address of all active router’s physical interfaces will be chosen.
-The loopback interface will be chosen as the router ID of RouterB - C is correct.
Q52. - (Topic 1)
Which port state is introduced by Rapid-PVST?
Spanning Tree from PVST+ to Rapid-PVST Migration Configuration Example Reference 1: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/hw/switches/ps708/products_configuration_example 09186a00807b0670.shtml
Reference 2: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk621/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094cf a.shtml
PVST+ is based on IEEE802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). But PVST+ has only 3 port states (discarding, learning and forwarding) while STP has 5 port states (blocking, listening, learning, forwarding and disabled). So discarding is a new port state in PVST+.
802.1D Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) has a drawback of slow convergence. Cisco
Catalyst switches support three types of STPs, which are PVST+, rapid-PVST+ and MST.
PVST+ is based on IEEE802.1D standard and includes Cisco proprietary extensions such
as BackboneFast, UplinkFast, and PortFast. Rapid-PVST+ is based on IEEE 802.1w
standard and has a faster convergence than 802.1D. RSTP (IEEE 802.1w) natively
includes most of the Cisco proprietary enhancements to the 802.1D Spanning Tree, such
as BackboneFast and UplinkFast. Rapid-PVST+ has these unique features:
Uses Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU) version 2 which is backward compatible with the
802.1D STP, which uses BPDU version 0.
All the switches generate BPDUs and send out on all the ports every 2 seconds, whereas
in 802.1D STP only the root bridge sends the configuration BPDUs.
Port Roles—Root port, designated port, alternate port and backup port.
Port States—Discarding, Learning, and Forwarding.
Port Types—Edge Port (PortFast), Point-to-Point and Shared port.
Rapid-PVST uses RSTP to provide faster convergence. When any RSTP port receives
legacy 802.1D BPDU, it falls back to legacy STP and the inherent fast convergence
benefits of 802.1w are lost when it interacts with legacy bridges.
Q53. - (Topic 2)
What information does a router running a link-state protocol use to build and maintain its topological database? (Choose two.)
A. hello packets
B. SAP messages sent by other routers
C. LSAs from other routers
D. beacons received on point-to-point links
E. routing tables received from other link-state routers
F. TTL packets from designated routers
Link State Routing Protocols http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=24090&seqNum=4
Link state protocols, sometimes called shortest path first or distributed database protocols, are built around a well-known algorithm from graph theory, E. W. Dijkstra'a shortest path algorithm. Examples of link state routing protocols are: Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) for IP The ISO's Intermediate System to Intermediate System (IS-IS) for CLNS and IP DEC's DNA Phase V Novell's NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP) Although link state protocols are rightly considered more complex than distance vector protocols, the basic functionality is not complex at all:
1. Each router establishes a relationship—an adjacency—with each of its neighbors.
2. Each router sends link state advertisements (LSAs), some
3. Each router stores a copy of all the LSAs it has seen in a database. If all works well, the databases in all routers should be identical.
4. The completed topological database, also called the link state database, describes a graph of the internetwork. Using the Dijkstra algorithm, each router calculates the shortest path to each network and enters this information into the route table.
Q54. - (Topic 3)
What is the result of issuing the frame-relay map ip 192.168.1.2 202 broadcast command?
A. defines the destination IP address that is used in all broadcast packets on DCLI 202
B. defines the source IP address that is used in all broadcast packets on DCLI 202
C. defines the DLCI on which packets from the 192.168.1.2 IP address are received
D. defines the DLCI that is used for all packets that are sent to the 192.168.1.2 IP address
Frame-relay map ip 192.168.1.2 202 command statically defines a mapping between a network layer address and a DLCI. The broadcast option allows multicast and broadcast packets to flow across the link. The command frame-relay map ip 192.168.1.2 202 broadcast means to mapping the distal IP 192.168.1.2 202 to the local DLCI . When the “broadcast” keyword is included, it turns Frame Relay network as a broadcast network, which can forward broadcasts. http://www.cisco.com/en/US/docs/ios/wan/command/reference/wan_f2.html#wp1012264
Q55. - (Topic 2)
What are the two default metrics used by EIGRP for route selection? (Choose two.)
EIGRP adds together weighted values of different network link characteristics in order to calculate a metric for evaluating path selection.
These characteristics include:
. Delay (measured in 10s of microseconds)
. Bandwidth (measured in kilobytes per second)
. Reliability (in numbers ranging from 1 to 255; 255 being the most reliable)
. Load (in numbers ranging from 1 to 255; 255 being saturated)
Various constants (K.1.through K.5) are able to be set by a user to produce varying routing behaviors. However by default, only delay and bandwidth are used in the weighted formula to produce a single 32bit metric:
Note:.Default K values are:.K1.=.K3.= 1 and.K2.=.K4.=.K5.= 0When K5.is equal to 0 then [
K5/(.K4.+ reliability)] is defined to be 1
Use of the default constants effectively reduces the formula above to:
Q56. - (Topic 1)
Refer to the exhibit.
The output that is shown is generated at a switch. Which three statements are true? (Choose three.)
A. All ports will be in a state of discarding, learning, or forwarding.
B. Thirty VLANs have been configured on this switch.
C. The bridge priority is lower than the default value for spanning tree.
D. All interfaces that are shown are on shared media.
E. All designated ports are in a forwarding state.
F. This switch must be the root bridge for all VLANs on this switch.
From the output, we see that all ports are in Designated role (forwarding state) -> A and E
The command “show spanning-tree vlan 30 only shows us information about VLAN 30. We
don’t know how many VLAN exists in this switch -> B is not correct.
The bridge priority of this switch is 24606 which is lower than the default value bridge
priority 32768 -> C is correct.
All three interfaces on this switch have the connection type “p2p”, which means Point-to-point environment – not a shared media -> D is not correct.
The only thing we can specify is this switch is the root bridge for VLAN 3o but we can not
guarantee it is also the root bridge for other VLANs -> F is not correct.