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Q57. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

The network is converged. After link-state advertisements are received from Router_A, what information will Router_E contain in its routing table for the subnets 208.149.23.64 and 208.149.23.96? 

A. O 208.149.23.64 [110/13] via 190.173.23.10, 00:00:07, FastEthernet 0/0 O 208.149.23.96 [110/13] via 190.173.23.10, 00:00:16, FastEthernet 0/0 

B. O 208.149.23.64 [110/1] via 190.172.23.10, 00:00:07, Serial 1/0 O 208.149.23.96 [110/3] via 190.173.23.10, 00:00:16, FastEthernet 0/0 

C. O 208.149.23.64 [110/13] via 190.172.23.10, 00:00:07, Serial 1/0 O 208.149.23.96 [110/13] via 190.172.23.10, 00:00:16, Serial 1/0 O 208.149.23.96 [110/13] via 190.173.23.10, 00:00:16, FastEthernet 0/0 

D. O 208.149.23.64 [110/3] via 190.172.23.10, 00:00:07, Serial 1/0 O 208.149.23.96 [110/3] via 190.172.23.10, 00:00:16, Serial 1/0 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Router_E learns two subnets subnets 208.149.23.64 and 208.149.23.96 via Router_A through FastEthernet interface. The interface cost is calculated with the formula 108 / 

Bandwidth. For FastEthernet it is 108 / 100 Mbps = 108 / 100,000,000 = 1. Therefore the cost is 12 (learned from Router_A) + 1 = 13 for both subnets - B is not correct. 

The cost through T1 link is much higher than through T3 link (T1 cost = 108 / 1.544 Mbps = 

64; T3 cost = 108 / 45 Mbps = 2) so surely OSPF will choose the path through T3 link -> 

Router_E will choose the path from Router_A through FastEthernet0/0, not Serial1/0 - C & 

D are not correct. 

In fact, we can quickly eliminate answers B, C and D because they contain at least one subnet learned from Serial1/0 - they are surely incorrect. 


Q58. - (Topic 3) 

Which two options are valid WAN connectivity methods? (Choose two.) 

A. PPP 

B. WAP 

C. DSL 

D. L2TPv3 

E. Ethernet 

Answer: A,C 

Explanation: 

On each WAN connection, data is encapsulated into frames before itcrosses the WAN link. The following are typical WAN protocols:1. High-level Data Link Control (HDLC): The Cisco default encapsulation type onpoint-to-point connections, dedicated links, and circuit-switches connections.2. PPP: Provides router-to-router and host-to-network connections over synchronous andasynchronous circuits. PPP was designed to work with several network layer protocols,including IP.3. Frame-relay: A successor to X.25. This protocol is an industry-standard, switchesdata-link layer protocol that handles multiple virtual circuits 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wide_area_network 


Q59. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Host A pings interface S0/0 on router 3, what is the TTL value for that ping? 

A. 253 

B. 252 

C. 255 

D. 254 

Answer:

Explanation: 

From the CCNA ICND2 Exam book: “Routers decrement the TTL by 1 every time they forward a packet; if a router decrements the TTL to 0, it throws away the packet. This prevents packets from rotating forever.” I want to make it clear that before the router forwards a packet, the TTL is still remain the same. For example in the topology above, pings to S0/1 and S0/0 of Router 2 have the same TTL. 

The picture below shows TTL values for each interface of each router and for Host B. 

Notice that Host A initializes ICMP packet with a TTL of 255: 


Q60. - (Topic 3) 

Which protocol is an open standard protocol framework that is commonly used in VPNs, to provide secure end-to-end communications? 

A. RSA 

B. L2TP 

C. IPsec 

D. PPTP 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a technology protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and/or encrypting each IP packet of a communication session. IPsec also includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of the session and negotiation of cryptographic keys to be used during the session. 


Q61. - (Topic 1) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

What commands must be configured on the 2950 switch and the router to allow communication between host 1 and host 2? (Choose two.) 

A. Router(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0 Router(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 Router(config-if)# no shut down 

B. Router(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0 Router(config-if)# no shut down Router(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0.1 Router(config-subif)# encapsulation dot1q 10 Router(config-subif)# ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0 

Router(config)# interface fastethernet 0/0.2 Router(config-subif)# encapsulation dot1q 20 Router(config-subif)# ip address 192.168.20.1 255.255.255.0 

C. Router(config)# router eigrp 100 Router(config-router)# network 192.168.10.0 Router(config-router)# network 192.168.20.0 

D. Switch1(config)# vlan database Switch1(config-vlan)# vtp domain XYZ Switch1(config-vlan)# vtp server 

E. Switch1(config)# interface fastethernet 0/1 Switch1(config-if)# switchport mode trunk 

F. Switch1(config)# interface vlan 1 Switch1(config-if)# ip default-gateway 192.168.1.1 

Answer: B,E 

Explanation: 

The two answers B and E list all the commands needed to configure interVLAN routing. Please notice that Cisco switch 2950, 2960 only support dot1Q trunking so we don’t need to specify which trunking encapsulation to use in this case. For Cisco switches 3550 or above we have to use these commands instead: 

Switch3550(config-if)#switchport trunk encapsulation dot1q Switch3550(config-if)#switchport mode trunk 

References: http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk389/tk815/technologies_configuration_example09186a 00800949fd.shtml https://learningnetwork.cisco.com/servlet/JiveServlet/download/5669-2461/Router%20on%20a%20Stick.pdf. 


Q62. DRAG DROP - (Topic 2) 

Answer: Explanation: 

poison reverse: A router learns from its neighbor that a route is down and the router sends an update back to the neighbor with an infinite metric to that routeLSA: The packets flooded when a topology change occurs, causing network routers to update their topological databases and recalculate routes split horizon: This prevents sending information about a routeback out the same interface that originally learned about the route holddown timer: For a given period, this causes the router to ignore any updates with poorer metrics to a lost network 

The internetwork infrastructure of company XYZ consists of a single OSPF area as shown in the graphic. There is concern that a lack of router resources is impeding internetwork performance. As part of examining the router resources, the OSPF DRs need to be known. All the router OSPF priorities are at the default and the router IDs are shown with each router. 

Which routers are likely to have been elected as DR? (Choose two.) 

A. Corp-1 

B. Corp-2 

C. Corp-3 

D. Corp-4 

E. Branch-1 

F. Branch-2 

Answer: D,F 

Explanation: There are 2 segments on the topology above which are separated by Corp-3 router. Each segment will have a DR so we have 2 DRs. 

To select which router will become DR they will compare their router-IDs. The router with highest (best) router-ID will become DR. The router-ID is chosen in the order below: 

The highest IP address assigned to a loopback (logical) interface. 

If a loopback interface is not defined, the highest IP address of all active router’s physical interfaces will be chosen. 

In this question, the IP addresses of loopback interfaces are not mentioned so we will consider IP addresses of all active router’s physical interfaces. Router Corp-4 (10.1.40.40) & Branch-2 (10.2.20.20) have highest “active” IP addresses so they will become DRs. 


Q63. - (Topic 2) 

A router is running three routing processes: RIP, OSPF, and EIGRP, each configured with default characteristics. Each process learns a route to the same remote network. 

If there are no static routes to the destination and none of the routes were redistributed, which route will be placed in the IP routing table? 

A. the route learned through EIGRP 

B. the route learned through OSPF 

C. the route learned through RIP 

D. the route with the lowest metric 

E. all three routes with the router load balancing 

Answer:

Reference: 

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080094195.shtml 

Administrative distance is the feature that routers use in order to select the best path. 

Administrative distance defines the reliability of a routing protocol. Each routing protocol is prioritized in order of most to least reliable (believable) with the help of an administrative distance value. Lowest Administrative distance will be chosen first. 


Q64. - (Topic 3) 

What occurs on a Frame Relay network when the CIR is exceeded? 

A. All TCP traffic is marked discard eligible. 

B. All UDP traffic is marked discard eligible and a BECN is sent. 

C. All TCP traffic is marked discard eligible and a BECN is sent. 

D. All traffic exceeding the CIR is marked discard eligible. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Committed information rate (CIR): The minimum guaranteed data transfer rate agreed to by the Frame Relay switch. Frames that are sent in excess of the CIR are marked as discard eligible (DE) which means they can be dropped if the congestion occurs within the Frame Relay network. Note: In the Frame Relay frame format, there is a bit called Discard eligible (DE) bit that is used to identify frames that are first to be dropped when the CIR is exceeded.