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Q51. - (Topic 1) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

At the end of an RSTP election process, which access layer switch port will assume the discarding role? 

A. Switch3, port fa0/1 

B. Switch3, port fa0/12 

C. Switch4, port fa0/11 

D. Switch4, port fa0/2 

E. Switch3, port Gi0/1 

F. Switch3, port Gi0/2 

Answer:

Explanation: 

In this question, we only care about the Access Layer switches (Switch3 & 4). Switch 3 has a lower bridge ID than Switch 4 (because the MAC of Switch3 is smaller than that of Switch4) so both ports of Switch3 will be in forwarding state. The alternative port will surely belong to Switch4. Switch4 will need to block one of its ports to avoid a bridging loop between the two switches. But how does Switch4 select its blocked port? Well, the answer is based on the BPDUs it receives from Switch3. A BPDU is superior than another if it has: 

1. A lower Root Bridge ID2. A lower path cost to the Root3. A lower Sending Bridge ID4. A lower Sending Port ID 

These four parameters are examined in order. In this specific case, all the BPDUs sent by Switch3 have the same Root Bridge ID, the same path cost to the Root and the same Sending Bridge ID. The only parameter left to select the best one is the Sending Port ID (Port ID = port priority + port index). In this case the port priorities are equal because they use the default value, so Switch4 will compare port index values, which are unique to each port on the switch, and because Fa0/12 is inferior to Fa0/1, Switch4 will select the port connected with Fa0/1 (of Switch3) as its root port and block the other port -> Port fa0/11 of Switch4 will be blocked (discarding role) 


Q52. - (Topic 1) 

Which three statements are typical characteristics of VLAN arrangements? (Choose three.) 

A. A new switch has no VLANs configured. 

B. Connectivity between VLANs requires a Layer 3 device. 

C. VLANs typically decrease the number of collision domains. 

D. Each VLAN uses a separate address space. 

E. A switch maintains a separate bridging table for each VLAN. 

F. VLANs cannot span multiple switches. 

Answer: B,D,E 

Explanation: 

By default, all ports on a new switch belong to VLAN 1 (default & native VLAN). There are also some well-known VLANs (for example: VLAN 1002 for fddi-default; VLAN 1003 for token-ring…) configured by default -> A is not correct. To communicate between two different VLANs we need to use a Layer 3 device like router or Layer 3 switch -> B is correct. VLANs don’t affect the number of collision domains, they are the same -> C is not correct. Typically, VLANs increase the number of broadcast domains.We must use a different network (or sub-network) for each VLAN. For example we can use 192.168.1.0/24 for VLAN 1, 192.168.2.0/24 for VLAN 2 -> D is correct. A switch maintains a separate bridging table for each VLAN so that it can send frame to 

ports on the same VLAN only. For example, if a PC in VLAN 2 sends a frame then the 

switch look-ups its bridging table and only sends frame out of its ports which belong to 

VLAN 2 (it also sends this frame on trunk ports) -> E is correct. 

We can use multiple switches to expand VLAN -> F is not correct. 


Q53. - (Topic 2) 

Which statements are true about EIGRP successor routes? (Choose two.) 

A. A successor route is used by EIGRP to forward traffic to a destination. 

B. Successor routes are saved in the topology table to be used if the primary route fails. 

C. Successor routes are flagged as 'active' in the routing table. 

D. A successor route may be backed up by a feasible successor route. 

E. Successor routes are stored in the neighbor table following the discovery process. 

Answer: A,D 

Explanation: 

Introduction to EIGRP http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080093f07.shtml 

Feasible Successors A destination entry is moved from the topology table to the routing table when there is a feasible successor. All minimum cost paths to the destination form a set. From this set, the neighbors that have an advertised metric less than the current routing table metric are considered feasible successors. 

Feasible successors are viewed by a router as neighbors that are downstream with respect to the destination. 

These neighbors and the associated metrics are placed in the forwarding table. 

When a neighbor changes the metric it has been advertising or a topology change occurs in the network, the set of feasible successors may have to be re-evaluated. However, this is not categorized as a route recomputation. 


Q54. - (Topic 2) 

Which statement describes an EIGRP feasible successor route? 

A. A primary route, added to the routing table 

B. A backup route, added to the routing table 

C. A primary route, added to the topology table 

D. A backup route, added to the topology table 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Two terms that appear often in the EIGRP world are "successor" and "feasible successor". A successor is the route with the best metric to reach a destination. That route is stored in the routing table. A feasible successor is a backup path to reach that same destination that can be used immediately if the successor route fails. These backup routes are stored in the topology table. 

Reference: http://study-ccna.com/eigrp-overview 


Q55. - (Topic 2) 

Refer to the exhibit. 

Given the output from the “show ip eigrp topology” command, which router is the feasible successor? 

A) 

B) 

C) 

D) 

A. Exhibit A 

B. Exhibit B 

C. Exhibit C 

D. Exhibit D 

Answer:

Explanation: 

To be the feasible successor, the Advertised Distance (AD) of that route must be less than the Feasible Distance (FD) of the successor. From the output of the “show ip eigrp topology 

10.0.0.5 255.255.255.255 we learn that the FD of the successor is 41152000. Now we will mention about the answers, in the “Composite metric is (…/…)” statement the first parameter is the FD while the second parameter is the AD of that route. So we need to find out which route has the second parameter (AD) less than 41152000 -> only answer B satisfies this requirement with an AD of 128256. 

Reference: http://networklessons.com/eigrp/eigrp-neighbor-and-topology-table-explained/ 


Q56. - (Topic 2) 

A network administrator is troubleshooting an EIGRP problem on a router and needs to confirm the IP addresses of the devices with which the router has established adjacency. The retransmit interval and the queue counts for the adjacent routers also need to be checked. What command will display the required information? 

A. Router# show ip eigrp adjacency 

B. Router# show ip eigrp topology 

C. Router#show ip eigrp interfaces 

D. Router#show ip eigrp neighbors 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Implementing EIGRP http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=1171169&seqNum=3Below is an example of the show ip eigrp neighbors command. The retransmit interval (Smooth Round Trip Timer – SRTT) and the queue counts (Q count, which shows the number of queued EIGRP packets) for the adjacent routers are listed: R1#show ip eigrp neighbors IP-EIGRP neighbors for process 1 H Address Interface Hold Uptime SRTT RTO Q Seq (sec) (ms) Cnt Num 

0 10.10.10.2 Fa0/0 12 00:00:39 1282 5000 0 3 


Q57. - (Topic 2) 

Which parameter or parameters are used to calculate OSPF cost in Cisco routers? 

A. Bandwidth 

B. Bandwidth and Delay 

C. Bandwidth, Delay, and MTU 

D. Bandwidth, MTU, Reliability, Delay, and Load 

Answer:

Explanation: 

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_white_paper09186a0080094e9e.sht ml#t6 

OSPF Cost 

The cost (also called metric) of an interface in OSPF is an indication of the overhead required to send packets across a certain interface. The cost of an interface is inversely proportional to the bandwidth of that interface. A higher bandwidth indicates a lower cost. There is more overhead (higher cost) and time delays involved in crossing a 56k serial line than crossing a 10M Ethernet line. The formula used to calculate the cost is: Cost= 10000 0000/bandwidth in bps 

For example, it will cost 10 EXP8/10 EXP7 = 10 to cross a 10M Ethernet line and will cost 10 EXP8/1544000 =64 to cross a T1 line. By default, the cost of an interface is calculated based on the bandwidth; you can force the cost of an interface with the ip ospf cost <value> interface sub configuration mode command. 


Q58. - (Topic 3) 

It has become necessary to configure an existing serial interface to accept a second Frame Relay virtual circuit. Which of the following are required to solve this? (Choose three) 

A. configure static frame relay map entries for each subinterface network. 

B. remove the ip address from the physical interface 

C. create the virtual interfaces with the interface command 

D. configure each subinterface with its own IP address 

E. disable split horizon to prevent routing loops between the subinterface networks 

F. encapsulate the physical interface with multipoint PPP 

Answer: B,C,D 

Explanation: 

How To Configure Frame Relay Subinterfaces http://www.orbit-computer-solutions.com/How-To-Configure-Frame-Relay-Subinterfaces.php 

Step to configure Frame Relay subinterfaces on a physical interface: 

1. Remove any network layer address (IP) assigned to the physical interface. If the physical interface has an address, frames are not received by the local subinterfaces. 

2. Configure Frame Relay encapsulation on the physical interface using the encapsulation frame-relay command. 

3. For each of the defined PVCs, create a logical subinterface. Specify the port number, followed by a period (.) and the subinterface number. To make troubleshooting easier, it is suggested that the subinterface number matches the DLCI number. 

4. Configure an IP address for the interface and set the bandwidth. 

5. Configure the local DLCI on the subinterface using the frame-relay interface-dlci command. Configuration Example: R1>enable R1#configure terminal R1(config)#interface serial 0/0/0 R1(config-if)#no ip address R1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay R1(config-if)#no shutdown R1(config-if)#exit R1(config-subif)#interface serial 0/0/0.102 point-to-point R1(config-subif)#ip address 192.168.1.245 255.255.255.252 R1(config-subif)#frame-relay interface-dlci 102 R1(config-subif)#end R1#copy running-config startup-config 


Q59. - (Topic 3) 

Which two options are valid WAN connectivity methods? (Choose two.) 

A. PPP 

B. WAP 

C. DSL 

D. L2TPv3 

E. Ethernet 

Answer: A,C 

Explanation: 

On each WAN connection, data is encapsulated into frames before itcrosses the WAN link. The following are typical WAN protocols:1. High-level Data Link Control (HDLC): The Cisco default encapsulation type onpoint-to-point connections, dedicated links, and circuit-switches connections.2. PPP: Provides router-to-router and host-to-network connections over synchronous andasynchronous circuits. PPP was designed to work with several network layer protocols,including IP.3. Frame-relay: A successor to X.25. This protocol is an industry-standard, switchesdata-link layer protocol that handles multiple virtual circuits 

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wide_area_network 


Q60. - (Topic 2) 

What does a router do if it has no EIGRP feasible successor route to a destination network and the successor route to that destination network is in active status? 

A. It routes all traffic that is addressed to the destination network to the interface indicated in the routing table. 

B. It sends a copy of its neighbor table to all adjacent routers. 

C. It sends a multicast query packet to all adjacent neighbors requesting available routing paths to the destination network. 

D. It broadcasts Hello packets to all routers in the network to re-establish neighbor adjacencies. 

Answer:

Explanation: 

Introduction to EIGRP Reference: 

http://www.cisco.com/en/US/tech/tk365/technologies_tech_note09186a0080093f07.shtml 

Feasible Successors 

A destination entry is moved from the topology table to the routing table when there is a feasible successor. All minimum cost paths to the destination form a set. From this set, the neighbors that have an advertised metric less than the current routing table metric are considered feasible successors. 

Feasible successors are viewed by a router as neighbors that are downstream with respect to the destination. 

These neighbors and the associated metrics are placed in the forwarding table. 

When a neighbor changes the metric it has been advertising or a topology change occurs in the network, the set of feasible successors may have to be re-evaluated. However, this is not categorized as a route recomputation. 

Route States 

A topology table entry for a destination can have one of two states. A route is considered in the Passive state when a router is not performing a route recomputation. The route is in Active state when a router is undergoing a route recomputation. If there are always feasible successors, a route never has to go into Active state and avoids a route recomputation. 

When there are no feasible successors, a route goes into Active state and a route recomputation occurs. A route recomputation commences with a router sending a query packet to all neighbors. Neighboring routers can either reply if they have feasible successors for the destination or optionally return a query indicating that they are performing a route recomputation. While in Active state, a router cannot change the next-hop neighbor it is using to forward packets. Once all replies are received for a given query, the destination can transition to Passive state and a new successor can be selected. 

When a link to a neighbor that is the only feasible successor goes down, all routes through that neighbor commence a route recomputation and enter the Active state.